A vast amount of scientific issues in observational astronomy and cosmology can be addressed using a medium class telescope such as INO 3.4m telescope. At the same time, as it is designed for a wavelength interval limited to between 325 and 2500 nm, INO340 is an excellent tool for collaborative programs joining other, major, similar size and/or larger telescopes as well as with space-based telescopes optimized to work at similar or different, not least very different, wavelength ranges.
The study of galaxies and our current understanding of the formation and evolution of the large and small scale structures are to a large extend based on the observations carried out by mid‐size telescopes. Even at the era of large and very large telescopes, such observations are still pursued thanks to advances in the instrumentation. While there are new frontiers to be explored by very large and extremely large telescopes, there are still enormous details which require further explorations. For economic and flexibility reasons there are still demands for 2‐4m class telescopes. These telescopes can complement others observing facilities to address some of the most fundamental questions related to galaxies such as the evolution of the cosmic web of galaxies, metal production and distribution within and between galaxies, formation of the present day Hubble sequence and also understanding our own galaxy.
For the community of astronomers in Iran, extra-galactic astronomy and observational cosmology is a new undertaking mostly because of the absence of suitable observing facilities in the past and thus INO340 will focus on this line of developing research.
Taking advantage of the location, INO340 is designed to respond to time critical astronomical events. Large programs and surveys are also pursued in instrumentation planning.